Jihadization Each of these phases is unique and has specific signatures… The NYPD shows its grasp of the realities of 4GW by not seeing the enemy as a structure or organization: Al-Qaeda has provided the inspiration for homegrown radicalization and terrorism; direct command and control by al-Qaeda has been the exception rather than the rule among the case studies reviewed in this study… Rather, it radicalization is a phenomenon that occurs because the individual is looking for an identity and a cause… Salafist Islam provides the identity and cause these young men are seeking -- and as a number of the case studies show, it has an appeal beyond ethnic boundaries.
It is also the symbolic end of a major chapter in American security strategy.
The fall of the former Iraq and Afghanistan commander adds a tawdry exclamation point to the decline of counterinsurgency, the military theory for which Petraeus offered a heroic public face.
Flash back to the mids. The Iraq war was an unmitigated disaster, with no apparent hope in sight. Confronted with a potent insurgency, the occupying U. Along came the Princeton-educated Petraeus, preaching the gospel of counterinsurgency. Defeating an indigenous resistance, the thinking went, required a unique approach to warfare.
To oversimplify, it was less about killing the enemy than winning over and protecting the local population; less about guns and bombs than about hearts and minds. That meant forging personal relationships, training local security forces and investing in expensive development projects.
In short, it meant nation building. It was often described as the Petraeus Doctrine. Soon the theory caught fire in Washington: This was a form of warfare that even many liberals perhaps misguidedly saw as kinder and gentler enough than the usual shock and awe to tolerate.
Petraeus and the counterinsurgency he waged as George W. But plenty of people, including military and political leaders in Washington, wanted to believe that what Petraeus had done for Iraq could also be done in Afghanistan. Soon after Barack Obama took office, his commander there, General Stanley McChrystal, devised an ambitious counterinsurgency strategy for the country.
The White House seemed to accept the idea. Later that year, Obama sent 30, more troops to the country — fewer than what McChrystal had requested, but perhaps close enough.
The final chapter of the Afghanistan war has yet to be written, but the U. In the election, Mitt Romney agreed with Obama that the U.
A few weeks ago, the New York Times published a long editorial calling for an even faster end to the war and warning against more such interventions.
He also oversaw a steep increase in Special Forces raids and armed drone strikes. That would be carpet bombing. But they fly in the face of the doctrine in multiple ways. At least one recent would-be terrorist who plotted to attack the U. Counterinsurgency requires huge numbers of troops to protect and build relationships with local populations.
Drone-based counterterrorism strategy requires few if any boots on the ground. Death is rained down anonymously, usually with no explanation or apology for collateral damage. This is the new American strategy.
Hearts and minds have been replaced by drones and SEALs. Working a tribal council is a less valuable skill than piloting a Predator.
By the end of his career — in a country exhausted by war and slashing its budget — Petraeus had embraced that shift. But to those watching closely, the Petraeus Doctrine had morphed into something different.Was Counterinsurgency Worth It?
More U.S. Army Gen. David Petraeus, Commander of American forces in Iraq, testifies before the Senate Armed Services Committe on Capitol Hill April 8, in.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
An In General David Petraeus’ Counterinsurgency . During his time at CAC, he and Marine Lt. Gen James N. Mattis jointly oversaw the Publication of Field Manual , Counterinsurgency, the body of which was written by an extraordinary, diverse group of military officers, academics, human rights advocates, and journalists who had been assembled by Petraeus and Mattis.
Petraeus reportedly began an affair with Paula Broadwell, principal author of his biography, All In: The Education of General David Petraeus, after Petraeus left his ISAF command on July 18, , to become CIA director.
Reflections on the "Counterinsurgency Decade": Small Wars Journal Interview with General David H. Petraeus. General David H. Petraeus (Rtd) served for thirty-seven years in the US military, including as Commander of coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as Commander of the US Central Command.
Following retirement from the military in August , he served as the Director of the CIA until November